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มาตรฐานการเตรียมพื้นผิว Surface Preparation Standard article

 

 

มาตราฐานการเตรียมผิวก่อนการทำสี 

     การทำสีให้เกิดประสิทธิภาพสูงสุด ... สิ่งที่เป็นหัวใจก็คือ การเตรียมพื้นผิวก่อนการทำสีให้ดีที่สุด เท่าที่จะทำได้  ดังนั้นนโยบายของเรา จะยึดถือการเตรียมพื้นผิว ชิ้นงาน อย่างเคร่งครัด และ ข้างล่างนี้คือ ข้อมูลของการเตรียมพื้นผิว ตามมาตรฐานต่างๆ 

 

The objective of applying a paint coating is to provide a film that will protect and decorate the surface being painted. The success of any paint application is generally governed by the following factors :

* Surface Preparation
* Film Thickness
* Methods of Application
* Conditions during Application

Surface Preparation
How any paint coating performs, depends on the correct and thorough preparation of its surface. Given below are some of the recommended surface preparation techniques commonly followed.
Surface : Steel
Degreasing - It is essential to remove all traces of oil, grease, drilling/ cutting compounds and any other surface contaminants. The most common method is by solvent washing, followed by wiping dry with clean rags. Recommended procedures are described in SSPC-SP1.
Hand tool cleaning - It is a method of preparing steel surfaces by the use of non-power hand tools. Loosely adhering mill scale, rust and old paint coatings may be removed from steel by chipping, scraping, hand wire brushing and emery paper cleaning. However, these methods are incomplete and always leave a layer of tightly adhering rust on the steel surface. Procedures for hand tool cleaning are described in SSPC-SP2 and should be to ST2 grade of Swedish Standard or ISO 8501-1: 1988.
Power Tool Cleaning - For the removal of loosely adhering mill scale, paint and dust, this is more effective and less laborious method than hand tool cleaning. It will not however remove tightly adhering mill scale. Power wire brushes, needle guns grinders and disc sanders are generally used. Care should be taken, particularly when using power wire brushes, not to polish the metal surface, as this will reduce the key for subsequent painting. Methods are described in SSPC-SP3 and should be to ST3 grade of Swedish Standard or ISO 8501-1: 1998.
Flame Cleaning - Generally more effective than power tool cleaning, but has the inherent risks of fire and explosion, and of possible distortion of light gauge steel.
Blast Cleaning - By far the most effective method for removal of mill scale, rust and old coating by using abrasives such as sand, grit or shots directed at high velocity against the surface. Prior to blasting, steelwork should be degreased and all weld spatters removed. Weld seams and sharp edges should be ground down. This is because paint coatings tend to run away from sharp edges, resulting in thin coatings and reduced protection. The grade of blasting suitable for a particular coating specification depends on a number of factors, the most important of which is the type of coating system selected. There are four commonly used grades for blast cleaning, and the approximate equivalents between the various International Standards are as follows :

Steel Structures Painting Council (USA)
National Association of Corrosion Engineers (USA)
British Std. BS 4232
Swedish Standard SIS 05 5900 - 1967 / ISO 8501-1 : 1988
Shipbuilding Research Association of Japan - SPSS.
White Metal
SSPC - SP 5
NACE # 1
1st Quality
SA3
JA Sh 3 or
JA Sd 3
Near White Metal
SSPC - SP 10
NACE # 2
2nd Quality
SA 2½
JA Sh 2 or
JA Sd 2
Commercial Blast
SSPC - SP 6
NACE # 3
3rdQuality
SA 2
JA Sh 1 or
JA Sd 1
Brush Off Blast
SSPC - SP 7
NACE # 4
-
SA 1
-

The profile of roughness obtained during blasting is important, and will depend on the abrasive used, the air pressure and the technique of blasting. Too low a profile may not provide a sufficient key for a coating, while too high a profile may result in uneven coverage of sharp peaks leading to premature coating failure, particularly for thin coatings such as blast primers. An important ancillary to the blast cleaning process is the removal of abrasive and dust from the surface before paint application. This process must be carried out efficiently. The following table gives a brief guide to typical roughness profiles obtained using various types of abrasives:-


Mesh Size
Maximum profile height
Very fine sand
80
37 microns
Coarse Sand
12
70 microns
Iron Shot S 230
18
75 microns
Iron Shot S 390
14
90 microns
Iron Grit G 50
25
83 microns
Iron Grit G 16
12
200 microns
Copper Slag (1.5-2mm grain size)
-
75/100 microns

Source :
Table below gives approximate open-air blast cleaning rates and abrasive computation on neatly fabricated steel using 3/8-inch venture nozzle with 100 psi nozzle pressure to a SA 2½ near white condition.


Types of Abrasive
Abrasive Consumption
Production Rate
Comments
Silica Sand 16/40 mesh
12.69 Kg/Sq.mt
0.44 sq.mt/min
Dusty - Not reusable
Garnet 36 grit
17.58 Kg/Sq.mt
0.33 sq. mt/min
Very little dust - Reusable
G. 40 Steel Grit
26.85 Kg/Sq.mt
0.28 sq. mt/min
No dust - Reusable
Copper Slag 16/40 mesh
15.13 Kg/Sq.mt
0.41 sq. mt/min
No dust - Reusable

Surface : Non Ferrous Metal/ Aluminium/ Galvanised Steel - All surfaces should be clean, dry and grease - free. If any corrosive salts are present they should be removed by light abrading. Before painting, one thin coat of etch primer should be applied so as to provide a key for further coats. In case of galvanised steel, any white zinc corrosion products should be removed by high pressure fresh water washing or fresh water washing with scrubbing. The galvanised surface should then be etched primed to passivate the surface and provide a key for further paint coatings.


Surface : Concrete/ Masonry/ Concrete Flooring
-
All surfaces should be clean, dry, and free from oil, grease and other contaminants, such as forming lubricants and curing components, which would affect adhesion of a paint coating. The moisture content of the concrete or masonry should be less than 5%. Painting over surfaces which have not sufficiently dried out, will result in blistering and flaking of the paint coating, as the trapped moisture gradually escapes. If a surface is persistently damp, which may be due to hygroscopic salts, the cause should be sought and corrected before attempting to apply paint. Laitence and loose surface powder formed on new concrete must be removed. The most preferable surface treatment for concrete is sweep-blasting. Cracks on the surface should be cut out and filled with a suitable filler prior to painting. If blast cleaning is not feasible then acid etching should be done using 10-15% Hydrochloric acid solution, followed by thorough flushing with fresh water to remove any residual acid. The surface should be allowed to dry perfectly before painting. Ensure that the concrete surface is cured for minimum 2 months before painting.

แหล่งข้อมูล : shahtraderspaint

 


 

 

SURFACE PREPARATION STANDARD

  • National Association of Corrosion Engineers (NACE)
  • Steel Structures Painting Council (SSPC)
  • Swedish Standards (Sa,St) 

 


SSPC-SP-1

 

Solvent Cleaning - Removal of all detrimental foreign matter such as oil, grease, dirt, soil, salts, drawing and cutting compounds, and other contaminants from steel surfaces by the use of solvents, emulsions, cleaning compounds, steam or other similar materials and methods which involve a solvent or cleaning action.


SSPC-SP-2

St 2

 

Hand Tool Cleaning - Removal of all rust scale, mill scale, loose rust and loose paint to the degree specified by hand wire brushing, hand sanding, hand scraping, hand chipping or other hand impact tods or by a combination of these methods. The substrate should have a faint metallic sheen and also be free of oil, grease, dust, soil, salts and other contaminants.


SSPC-SP-3

St 3

 

Power Tool Cleaning - Removal of all rust scale, mill scale, loose paint, and loose rust to the degree specified by power wire brushes, power impact tools, power grinders, power sanders or by a combination of these methods. The substrate should have a pronounced metallic sheen and also be free of oil, grease, dirt, soil, salts and other contaminants. Surface should not be buffed or polished smooth.


SSPC-SP-4

 

Flame Cleaning - Removal of all loose scale, rust and other detrimental foreign matter by passing high temperature, high velocity oxy-acetylene flames over the entire surface, followed by wire brushing. Surface should also be free of oil, grease, dirt, soil, salts and other contaminants.


SSPC-SP-5
Sa 3

NACE 1

 

White Metal Blast Cleaning - Removal of all mill scale, rust, rust scale, paint or foreign matter by the use of abrasives propelled through nozzles or by centrifugal wheels. A White Metal Blast Cleaned Surface Finish is defined as a surface with a gray-white, uniform metallic color, slightly roughened to form a suitable anchor pattern for coatings. The surface, when viewed without magnification, shall be free of all oil, grease, dirt, visible mill scale, rust, corrosion products, oxides, paint, or any other foreign matter.


SSPC-SP6
Sa 2

NACE 3

 

Commercial Blast Cleaning - Removal of mill scale, rust, rust scale, paint or foreign matter by the use of abrasives propelled through nozzles or by centrifugal wheels, to the degree specified. A Commercial Blast Cleaned Surface Finish is defined as one from which all oil, grease, dirt, rust scale and foreign matter have been completely removed from the surface and all rust, mill scale and old paint have been completely removed except for slight shadows, streaks, or discolorations caused by rust stain, mill scale oxides or slight, tight residues of paint or coating that may remain; if the surface is pitted, slight residues of rust or paint may by found in the bottom of pits; at least two-thirds of each square inch of surface area shall be free of all visible residues and the remainder shall be limited to the light discoloration, slight staining or tight residues mentioned above.


SSPC-SP-7

Sa 1

 

Brush-Off Blast Cleaning - Removal of loose mill scale, loose rust, and loose paint, to the degree hereafter specified, by the impact of abrasives propelled through nozzles or by centrifugal wheels. It is not intended that the surface shall be free of all mill scale, rust, and paint. The remaining mill scale, rust, and paint should be tight and the surface should be sufficiently abraded to provide good adhesion and bonding of paint. A Brush-Off Blast Cleaned Surface Finish is defined as one from which all oil, grease, dirt, rust scale, loose mill scale, loose rust and loose paint or coatings are removed completely but tight mill scale and tightly adhered rust, paint and coatings are permitted to remain provided that all mill scale and rust have been exposed to the abrasive blast pattern sufficiently to expose numerous flecks of the underlying metal fairly uniformly distributed over the entire surface.


SSPC-SP-8

 

Pickling - Removal of all mill scale, rust and rust scale by chemical reaction, or by electrolysis, or by both. It is intended that the pickled surface shall be completely free of all scale, rust, and foreign matter. Furthermore, the surface shall be free of unreacted or harmful acid or alkali, or smut.


SSPC-SP-9

 

Weathering Followed By Blast Cleaning - Weathering to remove all or part of the mill scale followed by one of the blast cleaning standards.

SSPC-SP-10
Sa 2-1/2

NACE 2

Near-White Blast Cleaning - Removal of nearly all mill scale, rust, rust scale, paint, or foreign matter by the use of abrasives propelled through nozzles or by centrifugal wheels, to the degree hereafter specified. A Near-White Blast Cleaned Surface Finish is defined as one from which all oil, grease, dirt, mill scale, rust, corrosion products, oxides, paint or other foreign matter have been completely removed from the surface except for very light shadows, very slight streaks or slight discolorations caused by rust stain, mill scale oxides, or light, tight residues of paint or coating that may remain. At least 95 percent of each square inch of surface area shall be free of all visible residues, and the remainder shall be limited to the light discoloration mentioned above.

 

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